Full information on vaccination and Sero-Monitoring in Poultry is revealed in this post.
Vaccination is an effective means to
prevent and/or reduce the adverse effects of specific diseases in poultry.
Sero-Monitoring In Poultry
Poultry refers to birds that people keep for their use, and generally includes chicken, turkey, duck, goose, quail, pheasant, pigeon, guinea fowl, pea fowl, ostrich, emu and rhea.
Most people think of disease as the result of infection. In fact, disease is any condition that alters normal function.
Factors Causing Diseases In Poultry
Some important factors that affect the incidence of disease include:
- Infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, etc.)
- Accident and injury
- Environmental stress
Disease is usually a sign of mismanagement which will occur if there are more pathogens than the bird is capable of fighting as even as a strong response by the immune system will not be able to contain this invasion.
Another possibility is; the bird can be so weakened by other stresses so that even a few microorganisms are capable of producing disease.
Also Check Out: An investigation of the major causes of chicken mortality[PDF]
In some cases the bird’s ability to fight an infection is affected or if an essential mineral or vitamin is deficient from the diet, the bird’s ability to produce the products it needs to defend itself may be affected.
Under additional stress it will show as a disease. Vaccination is no substitute for effective management. It must be understood that vaccines may be effective in reducing clinical disease provided the antibody level of the flock allows for its administration but exposed birds, in most cases, still become infected and shed disease organisms.
When a chicken is vaccinated or exposed to a disease, it responds by producing antibodies against that specific disease organism.
Significant Of Sero-Monitoring In Poultry
Serological monitoring allows a producer to estimate the quantity of antibodies to a viral antigen present in particular serum.
Serological examinations are of major importance for developing vaccination schedules, monitoring vaccination response and to detect field infections in poultry flocks.
The information provided by serological monitoring has proved to be so beneficial that more and more poultry producers are making it as an essential part of preventive medicine programme.
Commonly used serological tests
Rapid Plate Agglutination test (RPA);
To detect antibodies against Mycoplasma and various types of Salmonella.
Agar gel precipitation test (AGP);
Simple method to detect antibodies
against various viruses like Adenovirus (IBH or Leechi virus)and Marek’s disease virus.
Hemagglutination inhibition (H);
Is an easy, rapid and cheap method
for the detection and quantification of antibodies against the viruses that have the ability to agglutinate red blood cells of the chicken i.e. ND, AI and EDS
Sero-Monitoring In Poultry Using Elisa Techniques
The ELISA technique is universally accepted within poultry industry as most reliable serological monitoring tool.
Commercial ELISA tests are available for the most important viral and bacterial infections of poultry (IB, IBD, ND, AI, AE, ALC, CAV, REO, REV, Mycoplasma, Pasteurella, Salmonella etc).
ELISA tests are rapid method to test large number of samples and from one single serum dilution antibodies against different agents could be tested.
In ELISA, the level of antibodies in the blood are measured and expressed as titre values. Titres are calculated end point dilutions at which the sample would be positive.
Any interpretation of results must
include the mean titre i.e an average
of titres of flock and the coefficient of
variation (CV), which indicates variation in titre levels throughout flock.
Also it is important to consider the ELISA as flock monitoring tool and not to test individual bird.
Precautions In Vaccination And Sero-Monitoring In Poultry
All said and done, you discover it’s
safe to carry out vaccination; the following must be strictly adhered to; All vaccinations must be carried out by a veterinarian.
Each vaccine is designed for a specific route of administration hence use only the recommended route.
Do not vaccinate sick birds (except in
outbreaks of laryngotracheitis or fowl pox). Protect vaccines from heat and direct sunlight.
Most vaccines are living, disease producing agents. Handle them with care.
When using the drinking-water method of vaccination, be sure the water is free of sanitizers and chlorine.
Live-virus vaccines are readily destroyed by these chemicals. After vaccinating, burn or disinfect all opened containers to prevent accidental spread to other poultry.
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