Dog Breeding And Their Sexes In Procreation -Dr Annoye

Dog breeding

In this post We’ll be discussing Dog breeding and their sexes in Procreation , this post was writting by Dr. Annoye Fidelis.
There are over 400 breeds of dogs that have evolved as pedigrees right from the pre-medieval times to date. The Rottweiler breed for instance is the result of intimate sexual experience between a fox and a wolf.

Dog breeding | Rott puppy

Procreation in the canine family involves two sexes, male and female.

Dog Breeding Factors

The prospective brood bitch must be free from all hereditary disorder and the stud should be chosen to complement the bitch, also ensuring he is free from hereditary disorder.
Dog inherits 50% of its inherited characteristics from the dam and the other 50% from the sire.
The chromosomes present in each cell of a dog are 78, that is, 39 pairs.
Canine chromosomes are much smaller and more numerous than human chromosomes.

The Stud

The stud must be typical of its breed and must excel. Top physical conditions as per masculinity, virility, temperament, and vigour must come from a long lived line so that he has time to be recognized as a good stud after many successful litters.

A good stud must be able to attain at the stages cf copulation ranging from libido, courting, getting to know, mounting intromission, ejaculation and refractory.
In my twenty years of contemporary small animal practice, four types of stud are available.

The Experienced Stud

Easy to handle. He knows his Job and does it well. With verve.

The Average Dog

Knows his business too, but usually needs to do some courting first. When ready, he mounts and does a professional job.
The average dog is always aware that his handler or owner will assist. Every bitch brought to it, regardless of size will be served.

Faint Hearted

This type of dog is untrained, perhaps spoiled. Never a serviceable male. It can be trained to become a passable stud.

The Dullard

Dull and often may be lucky to guess which end to mount, the tail or the head. Not a prolific sire. Meant for easy bitches.

ALSO CHECKOUT  Guardian Breeds | History, Ubringing, Interests And Hobbies

The Bitch

A bitch at the peak of sexual receptivity is like a prostitute. It may leave home to meet a male seven kilometers away from home.
Lock her up as soon as heat is observed The physical signs of heat are: sweling of the vulva, increased licking of the genital area, and bleeding.

You are reading: Dog Breeding And Their Sexes In Procreation

In Dog breeding always note that sometimes a bitch will produce all signs of coming into heat, including some vulva enlargement and attraction to the stud yet will not start to bleed, and the physical signs may regress only to reappear eight weeks later.
This is what we call “SPLIT HEAT”. This occurs when the estrogen produced are not enough to bring the bitch properly into season.

Dog breeding

There is a vital secret in levels of bleeding exhibited by bitches. Some will show swelling of the vulva.
This group of bitches are referred to having “colorless season” But there is another difficult type of season called the “DRY SEASON” where there is no bleeding and no swelling.

This is an abnormality which occurs in particular breeds, and puppies from these breeds are never plenty.
The secret for dog breeding procreation here is that conception can only be achieved by allowing the male and the female to live together.

Again it is important to note that 80% of dogs come on heat between 4 12-6months interval but the BESINJI breeds come on heat once a year.

The Best Time For Mating

Three vital methods to detemine the stages of oestrus cycle cum the time of ovulation are available to breeders and vet practitioners.

Vaginal Cytology

Take a smear from upper vagina. Special stains are used and observed under the microscope. If 80% of the nuclei are stained, a bitch is ready for mating.

Measurements Of Hormone Levels

This involves quick ELISA TEST on the blood of the bitch to predict time of, ovulation. A sudden rise in plasma pragesterone confirms best time of Ovulation.

ALSO CHECKOUT  The Dangers of Over-Vaccination in Dogs and Cats


This is strictly for vets, in order to avoid injury to the vaginal mucosa or serosa. A special instrument called vaginoscope is used.
Motive is to search for changes in the vaginal wall. As the time of ovulation (which is the most critical time for mating), the wrinkles on the vaginal walls become very pronounced.

Problems In Whelping

Whelping in dogs occurs as complications or conditions but if well prepared, some puppies that might not otherwise survive can be born alive and reared successfully A steadfast breeder is likely to encounter the following whelping problems or challenges.

1. Uterine Inertia

This is when the bitch stops straining
Three probable reasons may be informed.
You are reading: Dog Breeding And Their Sexes In Procreation
She has finished giving birth.
She is merely having a break. Please don’t assume she has more pups. Don’t be too sure She may be suffering from uterine inertia. This may be primary or secondary

2. Abreech Birth

A breech birth is where a puppy is born with its rump presented first.

3. Still Born Puppy

When a puppy appears to shows no sign of life do not despair Promote breathing by rubbing and drying it vigorously with a towel. Don’t be too gentle. Do it for at least 30 minutes.

Hold its neck and head downwards to clear the airways of excessive fluid. You may “swing” the puppy. Do this very gently about six times.

If it is a highly priced pedigree like Bull Mastiff, Boar Bull, Neapolitan Mastif, Great Dane, Pit-bull, Rottweiler etc acupuncture point at the centre of the nose may be pricted gently.

4. Retained Afterbirth

5. Fading Puppies

6. Failure To Clean The Puppies

There are not often “careless” mothers in the canine world. Watch for I’ll health in the bitch if she is not caring for her puppies adequately.

Post Whelping problems

1. Enlampsia

High body temperature, muscle contractions due to sudden calcium deficiency Calcium is withdrawn from the body through the milk at a faster rate than can be replaced from the mother’s bones.

ALSO CHECKOUT  6 Essential Equipments For Your Dog [Most Vital]

2. Mastitis

Bitch with this condition will net like puppies to near her. Her mammary gland is fully distended, hotter are firmer. These glands became very hot and extremely painful.

Reluctant on the bitch’s part to feed the puppies. Make alternative feeding arrangements.
In extreme cases, a breast abscess develops and one gland bursts living a large cavity. Virtually in most cases, healing takes place quickly after the gland has discharged.
You are reading: Dog Breeding And Their Sexes In Procreation

3. Metritis

Inflammation of the uterus can occur after whelping. This condition may be caused by dead puppies, retention of a afterbirth, injury, infection.
Avoided by good hygiene and monitoring of a bitch during and
after whelping.

4. Death of the Bitch

This is very rare, but is not impossible. In my twenty years of daily dog activity, I have seen several, so consider it as a possibility.
What do you do per adventure?
Cross-Sucking is not harmful and could be considered. That is if you know who has a bitch with small litter of a similar age.
If she is a little reticent, smear her own milk or a very little honey or sun flower oil on the fostered puppy for acceptance, warmth and comfort for the orphan puppies are paramount.
Feeding bottle, every 4 hours throughout, day and night for least 3 weeks.

5. Swimmer Puppies

This is a condition seen in puppies once their eyes have opened but they fail to get up on their front legs to crawl or walk.
It is characterized by a swimming motion of the leg as the puppy tries to pull along. If no improvement by five weeks, Euthanasia of puppy may be advised.

This write up on Dog breeding will continue in subsequent posts where hope to discuss, puppy care and selection, puppy sales, Nutrition in puppies.
Thanks for Reading.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here